رابطه شخصیت پویا و قصد کارآفرینانه‌ دانشجویان کشاورزی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار/گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

2 هیات علمی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

چکیده

اگرچه در گذشته پژوهش‌های زیادی درباره تاثیر مستقیم ویژگی‌های شخصیتی بر قصد و رفتار کارآفرینانه انجام شده‌ ‌است اما به علت این‌که این ویژگی‌ها توان پیش بینی کننده خوبی نداشتند، مورد انتقاد جدی قرار گرفتند. اخیرا صاحب نظران پیشنهاد می‌کنند که تاثیر ویژگی‌های شخصیتی بر قصد و رفتار کارآفرینی بیشتر به صورت غیرمستقیم و از طریق عوامل انگیزشی کارآفرینانه صورت می‌پذیرد. هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر هم آن بود که با ادغام یک ویژگی شخصیتی مهم (یعنی شخصیت پویا) درون تئوری رفتار برنامه ریزی شده، نقش واسطه‌ای عوامل انگیزشی (یعنی نگرش نسبت به کارآفرینی و کنترل رفتاری درک شده) را در روابط بین این ویژگی شخصیتی و قصد کارآفرینانه مورد بررسی قرار دهد. روش پژوهش، توصیفی از نوع پیمایشی می‌باشد. داده‌های پژوهش از طریق پرسشنامه از نمونه‌ای متشکل از 300 دانشجوی کشاورزی در چهار دانشگاه دولتی در غرب کشور، جمع‌آوری گردید. روایی محتوایی پرسشنامه‌ را گروهی از خبرگان بررسی و تایید کردند و پایایی بخش‌های مختلف آن نیز با استفاده از ضریب تتای ترتیبی مورد تایید قرار گرفت (75/0 تا 82/0). نتایج حاصل از مدل‌یابی معادلات ساختاری و بوت استرپ نشان دادند که کنترل رفتاری و نگرش کارآفرینی در رابطه بین هنجارهای ذهنی و شخصیت پویا با قصد کارآفرینانه نقش واسطه‌ای داشتند. هنجارهای ذهنی و شخصیت پویا از طریق کنترل رفتاری و نگرش کارآفرینی اثرغیرمستقیم و مثبت بر قصد کارآفرینانه داشتند. یافته‌های به دست آمده بیانگر نقش مهم شخصیت پویا در فرایند کارآفرینی می‌باشد. کاربرد نتایج این پژوهش در ارتباط با توسعه قصد کارآفرینانه و آموزش کارآفرینی مورد بحث قرار می‌گیرند.   

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between Proactive Personality and Entrepreneurial Intentions among Agricultural Students

چکیده [English]

Early research which focused on the direct effects of personality traits on entrepreneurial intentions and behaviours have been criticized for their low predictive capacity. Recently researchers suggest that personality characteristics may affect entrepreneurial intentions and behaviours via entrepreneurial perceptions and motivational factors. The primary purpose of this study was to incorporate an important personality trait (namely, proactive personality) into the theory of planned behavior to examine the extent to which motivational factors (namely, attitudes toward entrepreneurship and perceived behavioral control) mediate the effects of students’ proactive personality on entrepreneurial intentions. Data was collected using a questionnaire survey from a sample of 300 senior agricultural students at four public universities in the west of Iran. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts. The reliability of the research instrument was determined using Ordinal Theta coefficient (θ =0.75-0.82). Structural equation modeling and bootstrap procedure were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that attitudes toward entrepreneurship and perceived behavioral control fully mediate the relationship of student subjective norms, proactivity and entrepreneurial intentions. The findings have implications for explaining attitudes toward entrepreneurship and perceived behavioral control and direct attention on proactivity as an essential competence in the entrepreneurial process. Theoretical and practical implications for entrepreneurial intentions and education are discussed

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurial intentions
  • Proactive Personality
  • Theory of planned behavior
  • Agricultural students

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